The great majority of so-called antioxidants are too large to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
Anything bigger than 500 daltons (only 1/50 to 1/100 the size of most protein molecules) can’t get through the BBB – or the skin covering your body.
A dalton (Da) isapproximately the mass of a single proton or neutron.
It’s also known as an atomic mass unit (AMU).
A water moleculehas a mass of18 Da / niacinamide, 123.11 Da / L-methionine, 149.21 Da / ascorbic acid, 176.13 Da / vitamin A, 286.46 Da / etc. / allowing easy access past the blood-brain barrier.
On the other side of the coin, a bioflavonoid molecule like rutinhas a mass of610.53 Da, so it can’t directly help capillaries in the parts of the brain north of the blood-brain barrier..
Nanotechnology/neurotechnology companies are bioengineering “edible computer chips” and self-configuring “self-aware”nanons smaller than 500 Da to implant them in the brain for deep brain “monitoring,” “stimulation,” and “rehabilitation.”
Even for “cellular intact absorption” anywhere in the body, molecules can’t weigh more than 1,500 Da.
So much for claims of cellular absorption for supplementssuch ascopper-zinc SOD enzyme or manganese SOD enzyme.
The first has a mass more than 30,000 Da, and the second is close to double that size (60,000 Da)
Most allergens are proteins with molecular weights in the range of 18,000 to 36,000 Da.
Proteins range between 10,000 to 1,000,000 daltons; enzymes between 12,000 to 1,000,000 Da.
Here’s a Size Matters list …
1 Da = hydrogen
2 Da = deuterium
3 Da = tritium
18 Da = water
19 Da = heavy water
122.13 Da = niacinamide
123.11 Da = niacin
149.21 Da = L-methionine
167.16 Da = pyridoxal B-6
169.17 Da = pyridoxine B-6
176.13 Da = ascorbic acid
178 Da = phenanthrene
180.16 Da = acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)
202 Da = pyrene
220.23 Da = 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)
228 Da = chrysene
252 Da = perylene
286.46 Da = retinol (vitamin A)
414.4 Da = podofilox (antimitotic drug)
500 Da = MAXIMUM SIZE LIMIT FORBLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (BBB)INTACT ABSORPTION
610.53 Da = rutin
1,007 Da = oxytocin
1,500 Da = MAXIMUM SIZE LIMIT FOR CELLULAR INTACT ABSORPTION
2,639 Da = Zicomotide
3,485 Da = pancreatic glucagon
3,500 Da = gastric glucagon
5,808 Da = human insulin
8,433 Da = ubiquitin (a simple protein)
27,000 Da = chymopapain
28,000 Da = thyrotropin (TSH)
30,000 Da = copper-zinc SOD
60,000 Da = manganese SOD
64,000 Da = hemoglobin
110,000 Da = aminopeptidase
150,000 Da = IgG molecule
6,300,000 = JP-5 (aviation jet fuel)