Introduction to Lectins




By Atom Bergstrom

Atom’s Blog


Re: Lectins stick to red blood cells.

Only a few do, e.g., lima bean lectin (lima bean phytohemagglutinin).

So much for the Blood Type diets (plural).

Ricin is a lectin that kills all Blood Types (O, A, B, and AB).

Most lectins — including ricin — affect the gut, not the blood.


Re: Lectins can cause rheumatoid arthritis.

That’s as rare as wings on bears.

Rheumatoid arthritis is triggered and perpetuated by over-alkalinity.

Osteoarthritis is the opposite — over-acidity.


Re: Bind lectins with glucosamine.

Rheumatoid arthritis is only temporarily helped with this monosaccharide supplement.

But long-term use causes additional inflammation.

That’s also true for the rest of the “gluco” group, including glucose, glucuronic acid, galactosamine, glucosaminic acid, galactosaminic acid, etc.

Glucosamine is closely related to cortisone.


Re: Lectins can’t be destroyed by heat.

Most lectins are destroyed at least partially by high heat, and most are completely destroyed by pressure cooking.

Sprouting destroys most them also. The potato is an exception to the rule.


Re: Nightshades are especially high in lectins.


All raw nightshade plants are mildly to greatly toxic, due to various lectins and polyphenols, including …

potatoes (not sweet potatoes)




peppers (sweet and hot, including cayenne and bell peppers)





goji berries (wolfberries)

ascorbyl palmitate (from potatoes)

palmitate vitamin A (sometimes from potatoes)

ashwagandha (Indian ginseng)


henbane (stinking nightshade)

jimsonweed (loco weed)

kakamachi (black nightshade)




Susan Bardocz, Stanley W.B. Ewen, George Grant, & Arpad Pusztai (“Lectins as Growth Factors for the Small Intestine and the Gut,” Lectins: Biomedical Perspectives, 1995) wrote …

“As the gut wall is the first line of defence between the individual and the environment, it is essential to keep its integrity. When the structure of the microvillus membrane of epithelial cells is damaged by lectin-binding, the gut becomes leaky and the cells can no longer fulfill their protective and digestive/absorptive functions. Therefore, they have to be replaced by new, healthy cells to maintain the integrity of the intestine and prevent harmful compounds or bacteria entering the body. The result of this is that the CCPR [crypt cell proliferation rate] is stimulated, although the exact mechanism by which it occurs is still unknown (Pusztai et al., 1988;1990). As the lectin first binds to the villus, the growth signal has to be sent to the crypt where the proliferation occurs.”

According to the same source …

“Even a small increase in the size of the gut has a slight nutritional penalty for the animal, since the need to renew the gut surface more quickly than normal means that more of the dietary protein and energy are used up for the faster turnover. With lectins, such as PHA [phytohaemagglutinin], SBA [soybean agglutinin] or WGA [wheat germ agglutinin], which bind avidly to epithelial cells and are more powerful growth factors for the small bowel, the cost in nutritional terms is even more expensive. Indeed, at high dietary intakes of these lectins, most or all of the diet is used by the gut alone with the result that other organs are starved of nutrients (Pusztai, 1989; Pusztai, et al., 1991a). However, under most practical conditions where dietary lectin intakes are low, the contribution of the growth stimulating activity of the lectins to nutritional toxicity is relatively slight.”

'Introduction to Lectins' have 10 comments

  1. June 9, 2017 @ 11:00 pm Atom

    Attention, Urine Drinkers …

    Beginning liver problems dump estriol into the urine.

    Advanced liver problems dump estrone into the urine.

    Urine therapy works best with a healthy liver, otherwise, bye-bye, Mr. Wiggles.

    The Liver Meridian is a 90-degree shunt for the Circulation-Sex Meridian.

    Estrogen in urine is in its biologically active form.

    Testosterone is in urine in its neutral form.

    Estrogen is a stress hormone, for both men and women, responding to inflammation.

    Testosterone is a sex hormone, for both men and women, responding to both social and sexual passion.–e-books.php


  2. June 12, 2017 @ 6:25 pm Atom

    380nm–425nm = violet —> 45nm (conventional violet starts at 400 —> 25nm)

    425nm–450nm = indigo —> 25nm

    450nm–495nm = blue —> 45nm

    495nm–570nm = green —> 75nm

    570nm–590nm = yellow —> 20nm

    590nm–620nm = orange —> 30nm

    620nm–750nm = red —> 130nm (conventional red stops at 700 —> 80nm)


  3. June 12, 2017 @ 6:39 pm Atom

    Peter McGrath (“GM potatoes deter one pest but attract another,” New Scientist, Jun. 1, 2002) wrote …

    “It was lectin-transformed potatoes created by Arpad Pusztai that set off a storm in Britain about the safety of GM food. Now Nick Birch’s team at the Scottish Crop Research Institute near Dundee has found that potato plants transformed with lectin genes have lower levels of bitter-tasting chemicals called glycoalkaloids that make plants unpalatable to many mammals and insects.”–pics-atom-then-and-now.php


  4. June 12, 2017 @ 6:45 pm Atom

    Most plant life wages chemical warfare to survive, and the various plant lectins that interact with different blood types are not nearly as harmful as numerous other biological warfare poisons produced by the vegetable kingdom.

    Audrey H. Ensminger, M.E. Ensminger, James E. Konlande, & John R.K. Robson (Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, 1994) wrote …

    “The acid-forming elements predominate over the alkaline-forming mineral elements in foods containing moderate to large amounts of protein, with the exception of milk and some of the other dairy products which contain sufficient calcium to give an alkaline reaction. Whole grains give an acid reaction disproportionate to their protein content due to the extra phosphorus present in the form of phytates. Although most fruits have an alkaline ash, others like prunes, plums, and cranberries make a net contribution of acid to the body since they contain organic acids that are not metabolized by the body, but which pass unchanged into the urine.”–e-books.php


    • June 14, 2017 @ 12:05 pm John

      Hello Atom! As you mention that most lectins are destroyed by pressure cooking, would that mean that ideally foods and spices high in lectins (such as the Nightshades, beans, strawberries, walnuts, chocolate, coffee beans, garlic, etc.) would be prepared in a pressure cooker before consumption as often as possible? As far as the ‘numerous other biological warfare poisons produced by the vegetable kingdom’ are concerned, does pressure cooking remove or greatly reduce them as well, or are there other ways like your ingenious Dextrinization Method to neutralize these poisonous defenses? What are some recommendations for repairing the gut wall after the structure of the microvillus membrane of epithelial cells is damaged by lectin-binding?


      • July 11, 2017 @ 7:15 pm Atom

        Lectins are minor “biological warfare poisons” compared to hundreds of others (esp. the man-made ones).

        Dextrinization doesn’t destroy lectins as well as pressure-cooking, but it has other advantages (digestibility, for example).

        Some (maybe many) lectins are anti-inflammatory and/or anti-carcinogenic, so I’m not overly concerned about their destruction.

        The best detoxifier is Eating In & On Time.

        Our body knows more about healing us than all the books and doctors in the world.

        The trick is to MINIMIZE eating health-killing foods. (Avoiding them is next to impossible).

        Our organs are designed for detoxification as long as we don’t OVERLOAD them.

        For example, if the liver were a capable martial artist, it could easily defeat one or two opponents, but not dozens of them.

        It the liver as martial artist had no opponents, it would weaken and forget how to defend itself.


  5. June 14, 2017 @ 12:40 pm John

    Hi Atom, what can be done to help with epilepsy ?


    • June 14, 2017 @ 5:40 pm Atom

      It’s an important question since epilepsy medication is so toxic.

      First, of course, Body Dowse to find the specific Cognitive Shock.

      Intestinal parasites can cause epileptic attacks, and so can TOO LITTLE oxygen, glucose, magnesium, sodium, or vitamin B6.


      • June 15, 2017 @ 7:47 am John

        Are there any foods that help ?


        • June 19, 2017 @ 2:59 pm Atom

          Sometimes simple table sugar or sea salt can stop an epileptic attack.

          Any food (like grated carrots) that stops gut inflammation helps prevent epileptic attacks.

          That’s why doctors used to remove the colon of an epileptic. NOT A GOOD IDEA.


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